Rotary Kiln Instruction Manual
Use Maintenance and Inspection Instructions
1 Preparation before starting
1.1 The following contents should be checked before ignition of the rotary kiln
a) Check the brick joints of each section of the kiln should be straight, the gap should meet the requirements of masonry, and the overall surface should be flat. No steps are allowed, the setting is firm, the brick lining is not damaged, no defects;
a) Check if the cutting slope position is correct, the lining size on it is correct, whether it is smooth;
b) Check the contact between the belt and the roller And whether there are cracks or defects on the surface, and clean the surface of the roller;
c) Check if the position of the wheel and the retaining wheel is correct;
d) Check the gear teeth of the transmission for damage and meshing of the gears;
e) Check the seal means for sealing is good;
F) counterparts and each gear for a bolt to check the coupling bolts loose, broken off phenomena;
G) of each solder joint inspection kiln shell without cracks, cracks and each base subsidence;
H ) inspection Roller bearings group adequacy of oil, with or without oil leakage, the lubricant is clean;
if i) the winter should check the oil has solidified, if the oil has solidified Heating the oil, the oil temperature should exceed the freezing point of the oil 10 ℃;
j) check the cooling means pipes, valves, fittings and other damage, the water is smooth, with or without leakage or clogging, water adequacy;
K) inspection monitoring instrument Whether the line is connected, whether the measurement position is accurate, whether the measuring point component is intact, whether the rotary kiln brake device and each switch are flexible and reliable;
l) Check whether the auxiliary equipment test operation is normal;
the problems found during the inspection are confirmed by the processing. After passing the test, after checking that there is no one in the kiln and the auxiliary equipment, the fireworker can send a contact signal to enter the ignition procedure.
1.2 Ignition and
ignition procedures are detailed in the commissioning instructions and process instructions written by the commissioning personnel. The following points are emphasized only:
a) The ignition process is a linkage process between the rotary kiln and the kiln tail system and the kiln head system. The kiln tail temperature is carefully operated as a control point. First of all, safety should be taken. When the fuel is injected into the kiln and has not been ignited, it should not be visited in the kiln. After the fuel is burned, attention should be paid to the correct coordination of the kiln exhaust system. The incompletely burned pulverized coal should not be inhaled into the kiln tail operating system to prevent explosion. Secondly, according to the temperature of the kiln tail, it is decided according to the commissioning plan when to feed and feed the kiln, and it is compatible with the kiln speed;
b) The kiln of the new kiln and the first ignition should be especially cautious. Strictly follow the heating curve of the commissioning scheme, the temperature rise gradient can not be large, and there should be a certain holding time. In addition to the need of brick lining, it is also necessary for the equipment. When the temperature rises, the temperature rise of the kiln cylinder is much faster than that of the belt. If the control is not good, the gap between them will disappear, which will easily cause the phenomenon of “necking”. Influencing the normal operation of the kiln, it is necessary to change the temperature at any time, adjust the temperature rise so that it can have a gap of about 2 mm at any time, and the interval and angle of the kiln should be determined according to the actual temperature curve;
c) already running The kiln, after ignition after stopping the kiln, should be strictly operated according to the same as described in b), except that there is no difference between the kiln stage and the kiln interval, and the kiln angle is somewhat different.
2 Start and stop kiln operation
a)from main drive to auxiliary drive:
first stop the main motor, then close the helical gear clutch on the auxiliary reducer output shaft, and the helical gear upper limit block is toggled The limit switch makes the main motor have the possibility of starting. At this point, the auxiliary transmission can be started;
b) the auxiliary drive is changed to the start of the main drive; the
auxiliary drive motor is stopped to disengage the clutch, and the upper limit block of the drive mechanism releases the limit switch to start the main motor. Possible. After that, the main transmission can be started;
c) The matters needing attention when using the auxiliary transmission:
When the main power supply is interrupted and the main motor cannot be started, in order to avoid the kiln body bending, the kiln is needed, or for maintenance, the kiln is wanted. The auxiliary drive can be used when the body is stopped in a certain orientation. It should be pointed out that when the auxiliary drive is used, since the kiln speed is very slow, the roller bearing is clearance lubrication, so it is best not to use it for a long time (not more than half an hour), otherwise oil heating or power rise may occur, even when the lining is dry. When rubbing, the roller axle will make a tumbling motion similar to the material in the kiln cylinder along the lining, thereby generating impact sound or even burning tiles. If it is necessary to use it for a long time, pay close attention to the lubrication of each roller bearing. At the same time, manually apply oil to the journal. At the same time, always check the lubrication and temperature rise of the main and auxiliary reducers.
2.2 In theshutdown kiln
production of, it is necessary to stop the kiln for inspection and repair work in a short period of time; sometimes, the kiln is stopped for a long time to carry out maintenance work. Although the opportunity to stop the kiln should be minimized, it is inevitable. Whether it is a long-term or short-term stop kiln, you should get in touch with all relevant production positions before stopping the kiln.
2.2.1 Long-term shutdown kiln
a) If the kiln shutdown time is expected to exceed 4 hours, the kiln should be stopped for a long time. At this time, it should be noted that the feed should be reduced before the kiln is stopped, and the kiln tail temperature should be lower than the normal index. After the temperature at the kiln tail continues to drop, the feed is further reduced until the feed to the kiln is stopped.
b) When the kiln is turned off, the burner is pulled out, and some or all of the materials in the kiln are discharged according to the maintenance task.
c) After stopping the kiln, do not immediately interrupt the cooling water near the two-stage roller bearing set of the kiln head. After the kiln cylinder is cooled, it can be closed.
d) After the kiln has been stopped, the kiln is in a hot state. If the kiln cylinder is not regularly rotated, the kiln center line is most likely to bend. On the other hand, during the cooling and shrinking process of the hot kiln cylinder, each gear wheel The static frictional resistance between the belt and the roller causes tensile stress in the kiln cylinder, and the force is continuously increased until the friction between the belt and the roller is overcome, so that the belt and the roller are relatively slippery. Move so that the stress in the kiln is released. However, before the tensile internal stress of the kiln body overcomes the friction between the belt and the idler, the tensile internal stress in the kiln cylinder at each gear belt is transmitted to the belt with the gear. , acting on the wheel and foundation. In this case, the axial force acting on the retaining wheel is quite large, which is the sum of the static friction between the belt and the idler of the other gears except the gear of the retaining wheel support device. If the hot kiln cylinder is not regularly rotated to a cold state, such a large axial force generated at the retaining wheel may cause damage to the retaining wheel device and the foundation of the civil engineering. In reality, the foundation of the retaining wheel device of some factories has been turned over or the horizontal cracks appear in the foundation of the civil construction, all of which are caused by improper operation of the hot stop kiln. Therefore, in order to ensure that the kiln center line does not bend and the equipment and civil construction foundations do not cause accidents, it is necessary to rotate the hot kiln cylinder to the cold state according to the right specification during long-term shutdown of the kiln. This is a crucial and prudent work.
After the kiln is cooled, if the kiln is to be shut down for a long time, the kiln body should be rotated 90 ° or 180 ° every 7 days to prevent bending deformation of the kiln center line.
2.2.2 Short-term shutdown kiln
a) If the kiln stop time does not exceed 30 minutes, then:
✧ stop feeding;
✧ stop the injection, but the fan should continue to rotate for a while to cool the nozzle;
✧ can close the small exhaust system slightly The gate in the middle;
转 Turn the kiln once and turn 1/2 turn 10 minutes after stopping the kiln.
b) If the kiln is stopped for more than 30 minutes, the following points should be added:
✧ To reduce the kiln temperature not too fast, the kiln tail fan should be turned off to stop the exhaust;
后 After stopping the kiln, the kiln and the kiln according to the long-term kiln regulations an examination.
c) After stopping the kiln, the following items should be checked:
✧ Whether part of the cooling water has been completely removed;
情况 the condition of each wear surface, the gap between the shaft and the lining, the clearance of the large and small gears, etc.
✧ Whether all the connecting bolts are loose, Damage, especially the connecting bolt of the large ring gear, the kiln cylinder and the spring plate connecting bolt, the crack of the barrel weld, etc.;
是否 Whether the lubricating oil of the lubrication point needs to be replaced, cleaned or replenished. If it needs to be replaced, the oil should be drained, cleaned, and refilled with new oil;
是否 Whether the retaining wheel, kiln seal, kiln seal, etc. need to be adjusted or replaced.
3 Hydraulic gear wheel operation and maintenance requirements The
kiln is equipped with a hydraulic retaining wheel. The bracket and the belt axis are installed in parallel, and the kiln cylinder slides under the action of its own weight. After sliding down to a certain position, the hydraulic oil pump is started by the limit switch, and the pressure wheel is pushed by the pressure of the hydraulic oil to realize the upper jaw of the kiln. After the upper jaw reaches a certain position, the limit switch is activated, the oil pump is de-energized, the reversing valve is reversing, and the kiln cylinder is again lowered by its own weight.
For specific operation requirementsrefer to the instruction manual of the gear oil pump station. Only the following pointsemphasized:
, pleaseshould be1. To strictly control the kiln's upper and lower speeds, it should be stable below 2~3mm/h. Otherwise, the kiln moving speed is too fast, which may damage the transmission gear and the supporting wheel and the belt.
2. Always pay attention to the reading of the pressure gauge of the pumping station and control it within the set range.
3. Stop the kiln or use the auxiliary motor to turn Do not start the oil pump when the kiln is in use. When the kiln is shut down for a long time, the position of the retaining wheel should meet the requirements on the general plan of the rotary kiln;
to strengthen the maintenance of the oil pumping station, a strict post responsibility system should be established to ensure the safe operation of the equipment.
4 Maintenance and overhaulInspection
4.1.during productionInspection of
✧ Operation of the motor, whether the current is within the specified value, if it is suddenly increased, the cause should be identified and dealt with in time;
✧ Check for vibration , abnormal sound and abnormal smell;
✧ Check if the anchor bolts are loose.
✧ Check whether the operation is stable and the gear meshing sound is normal;
✧ Check for vibration and oil leakage;
✧ If equipped with cooling coil, check whether the cooling effect is good; if centralized lubrication is required, check if the oil station is Normal operation;
时 When stopping the kiln, the gear cover can be opened for inspection according to the need, and the teeth are inspected for pitting corrosion and abrasive wear.
✧ Check the coupling bolts for looseness, and whether the sandwich plates of the combined couplings are not allowed to deform;
✧ Check for swings.
d) Transmission large and small gears and bearings
✧ Check whether the gear transmission works smoothly and with or without knocking sound;
✧ Check the large and small gear tooth surfaces to contact the spot spots, along the tooth height of not less than 40%, along the tooth length 50%;
径向 radial and axial oscillation of the large gear;
是否 whether the rotation of the oil tanker is flexible, whether the oil on the tooth surface is sufficient, the viscosity of the oil is suitable, and whether there is abnormal smoke;
✧ Check the temperature rise of the transmission bearing Whether it is normal, whether the sealing device is effective, whether there is oil leakage or abnormality; 有 Whether the
anchor bolts and other connecting bolts of the transmission device are loose or not, whether vibration or oscillation occurs.
2) Inspection of the belt and support device
a) Check whether the gap between the belt and the pad is normal, whether there is abnormal noise, whether the stopper and the retaining iron are effective;
b) Check the contact between the wheel and the roller and Surface wear;
c) Check the kiln cylinder turbulence, and adjust the support and control the kiln cylinder up and down. The thrust direction of each pair of rollers should be the same. Generally, the method of judging the thrust direction is to observe whether the thrust ring is in contact with the end surface of the lining or has a gap. When the thrust is upward, the support ring of the roller should be kept at the upper end (cold end) on the inner side of the idler shaft, and the lower end should be contacted without gaps as shown in Fig. 31. When the thrust is downward, the orientation of the gap remains opposite to the above. Judging the thrust of the roller can be based on the thickness of the oil film formed by the contact between the thrust ring and the lining. The oil film is small and thin, indicating that the thrust is large, and vice versa.
The pressure of each roller should be uniform, and the method of identification is generally the degree of gloss on the contact surface between the wheel and the roller. When the contact surface is bright, the force is large, and when it is dark, the force is small. It can also be identified by observing the thickness of the oil film on the journal of the roller. The oil film is thin and the force is large, otherwise it is small;
d) Check whether the cooling water in the spherical tile is unblocked and the pipeline has water leakage;
e) Check whether the oil film on the surface of the roller shaft is uniform and clean, and whether there are wire drawing and groove. Observe whether the oil level of the oil bearing of the roller bearing group meets the requirements and whether there is oil leakage;
f) Check whether the temperature rise of the roller bearing is normal;
g) Check whether the rotation of the wheel is flexible, whether there is any wheel caused by excessive force Abnormal surface such as shiny, fluffing and bearing heat, noise, etc.
h) Check the anchor bolts of the supporting device for looseness or breakage;
i) Check the foundation for vibration and local subsidence.
Inspection of the kiln cylinder a) Check the temperature change of the kiln cylinder surface to prevent the brick red kiln accident and provide the basis for when to replace the refractory brick. Special reminder is that the maximum temperature of the surface of the kiln cylinder is not allowed to exceed 400 °C, otherwise the risk of cracking will be caused by the significant decrease in the strength and rigidity of the;
kiln cylinderb) Check the butt weld of the kiln cylinder Crack;
c) Check the kiln cylinder for serious swinging, whether the kiln cylinder is stable or not;
d) If there is a watering device in the firing belt, check whether the water pipe hole is blocked or not, and whether the water is sufficient or not. Is it even?
Inspection of sealing device a) Check the parts of the sealing device for serious wear or damage, whether the lubrication part is complete and effective, whether the coupling bolt is loose or falling off;
b) Whether the sealing element is complete and effective, and whether the sealing friction part is in good contact Whether there is a serious air leak.
4.2 Precautions for maintenance during daily operation
1) The transmission system, supporting device and retaining wheel system must be inspected frequently (hourly), and abnormalities such as noise, vibration and heat should be detected in time;
2) All lubrication points If the lubrication is normal, the lubrication system should be strictly followed, and the oil quantity should be checked regularly;
3) The bearing lining should check the bearing temperature and lubrication every hour;
4) According to the relative rotation between the wheel and the pad Displacement, to determine the gap and wear;
5) Pay attention to the regular up and down movement of the kiln cylinder (every shift up and down);
6) Pay attention to whether the water outlet of each cooling water outlet is unblocked, and the height of the water surface of the lower tank of the supporting wheel The height is not suitable for adjustment by the water level regulator;
7) Note that the auxiliary transmission must be started once a week, but the clutch is not connected to ensure that the main power supply can be successfully started when the main power supply is suddenly interrupted;Always
8)pay attention to the temperature of the kiln cylinder. The temperature of the firing zone with the kiln can be determined by an automatic recorder of the infrared scanning device. The surface temperature of the firing kiln cylinder shall not exceed 380 °C; only in case of accident, it is allowed to reach 400 °C. If it exceeds 400 °C and continue to operate without treatment, it is illegal operation.
9) The problems found in the inspection should be handled in a timely manner according to the nature of the problem. The inspection of some items should be carried out after the kiln is stopped.
4.3 Inspection of uneven foundation settlement The
rotary kiln is a large and heavy equipment. The kiln cylinder is supported on a number of independent kiln piers, and foundation settlement is unavoidable. However, if the settlement is too large or uneven sag of each kiln pier will directly affect the linearity of the kiln, the kiln will produce abnormal bending deformation, which will bring harm to the safe operation of the kiln. At the same time, the kiln head of the rotary kiln The cooling machine and the kiln head cover are connected, and the kiln tail is connected with the kiln tail equipment. The kiln pier and the unevenness of the foundation of these equipments will cause damage to the connecting parts and directly affect the sealing effect of the kiln head and the kiln tail. Therefore, it is necessary to check the settlement of these equipment foundations.
1) Inspection of foundation settlement of
kiln piers Elevation points have been installed on the side of each kiln pier, and the elevation of these points has been measured and recorded at the time of equipment installation. It is the benchmark for the settlement measurement of kiln piers. From the installation of the rotary kiln, observe and measure the elevation changes of these points in stages:
a) During the period from equipment installation to commissioning, the foundation of the kiln pier may have a vertical settlement of up to 15 mm, so before commissioning The foundation sinking quantity needs to be measured, and the position of the supporting device supporting wheel is adjusted according to the measurement result, so that the center line of the kiln cylinder body is restored to the design position;
b) the kiln pier within 6 months of the initial operation of the rotary kiln The foundation may also have a maximum settlement of 5 mm, so the settlement of the foundation of the kiln should be measured frequently during this period;
c) After 6 months of operation of the rotary kiln, the foundation of the kiln may also have a settlement of 1 mm per year, so if necessary, The foundation settlement is measured.
2) Analysis and treatmentfoundation settlement The
ofrelative vertical settlement of the kiln piers of the rotary kiln is allowed, but the equipment does not allow inclined settlement of the foundation, because the equipment itself is difficult to handle the inclined settlement:
a) When the kiln piers are When the vertical settlement difference exceeds 3mm, the position of the supporting wheel of the relevant supporting device should be adjusted. When adjusting, it should be noted that the angle between the center of the two supporting wheels and the center of the wheel should meet the requirements of 60 ° ± 2 °;
b) the kiln head kiln pier It is not allowed to have a settlement difference of more than 25 mm between the kiln end kiln pier and its corresponding chiller (or kiln hood) and kiln tail equipment foundation. If the seal has been exceeded or has been affected, the part must be treated to be satisfactory.
5 Lubrication and cooling
Good lubrication of various lubricated parts is an important part of their work. Proper lubrication can extend the life of parts and reduce repair costs. Lubricants must be considered as a necessary "mechanical component".
Lubrication and cooling should pay attention to the following items:
1. Lubricating grease should be used according to the regulations. When using the test, it must meet the requirements of the specified oil quality. If the supply is difficult, only the same kind of lubricant with higher viscosity should be used instead of the viscosity. smaller.
2. The new kiln runs continuously for 400 to 500 hours. The gears and bearings have been running. At this time, the lubricating oil should be completely drained, and the oil pool should be cleaned, and new oil should be added. After 6 to 8 months, the cycle should be completed. Replace with new oil.
3. Check the oil level every shift. If it is lower than the lower limit of the oil level, it must be refueled immediately to the upper limit.
4. When oil leakage is found, measures should be taken immediately to stop the leakage. If the oil leaks to the foundation, it should be cleaned up in time to avoid erosion of the foundation and cause hidden dangers.
5. After the kiln has been stopped for a long time, if it is restarted, it is not advisable to use the main drive directly. Instead, use the auxiliary drive to rotate 1 to 2 turns and then use the main drive to rotate. At this time, it must be noted that the roller bearing should be pre-lubricated.
6. The final drive oil is cooled and filtered through a cooling filter in the reducer station.
6 Common faults and treatment methods
When there is a failure in the production process, it needs to be treated differently according to different situations. Major problems must be investigated and analyzed by the manufacturer, the manufacturing unit and the design unit, and the treatment methods should be discussed.
6.1 Reasons and phenomena for possible stoppage of rotary kiln:
1) Poor lubrication of transmission gear and roller, over temperature of bearing
2) Failure of hydraulic retainer system
3) The kiln is seriously exceeding the permitted range, causing damage to the kiln head and kiln seal Severe air leakage
4) Poor contact between large and small gears, roller and belt
5) Main drive motor failure
6) The displacement of the roller or the axis of the roller is not parallel to the center line of the kiln, causing excessive internal force.
7) In the case of interlocking, the system automatically performs the trip protection according to the program control requirements. In the case of unlocking, the corresponding treatment method:
✧ Stop the feeding immediately, stop the coal in the decomposing furnace and feed the coal in the kiln head. Reduce wind, reduce the cooling air volume of the cooling machine, prevent too much cold air from entering the kiln, causing the kiln skin to fall and keep the kiln in a state of heat preservation;
✧ Slowly turning the kiln with auxiliary transmission, pay attention to the kiln tail material accumulation;
✧ If the kiln stop time Longer, can not discharge faults, should consider system-wide parking.
6.2 Treatment of the kiln process
From the practice of a large number of production and commissioning, it is known that in the newly installed rotary kiln, most of the kiln problems exist in the ignition drying and trial production stages. Some of the upper and lower jaws are mainly due to the installation and adjustment of the rotary kiln supporting wheel. Therefore, if the kiln is found, it must be adjusted in time, otherwise it will lead to deformation of the kiln head and kiln seal, resulting in serious air leakage of the system, and more serious will be the top of the hydraulic wheel. The problem of kiln should be handled by experienced mechanical engineers and it is not easy to adjust, otherwise it will lead to many technical problems that are difficult to recover.
After commissioning the system 6.3 stable initial rotary kiln common failure causes and treatment methods as follows:
6.4 Overhaul the
rotary kiln during operation, the parts will wear out with time, thus reducing the reliability of the operation of the equipment and even affecting the rotary kiln. Production, for which it must be restored by inspection opportunities. According to the size of the maintenance work, it is divided into overhaul, medium repair and minor repair. Each use plant shall prepare large, medium and small repair plans according to the use and maintenance of the rotary kiln. Focus on minor repairs and intermediate repairs. The maintenance work can be carried out by replacing the kiln lining in the kiln. Only the maintenance transmission is allowed to be carried out after the brickwork is completed, but it should be completed quickly in a short period of time (such as 8-12 hours). For overhaul, it takes a long time. At this time, all the worn parts of the kiln need to be replaced, and the whole equipment should be inspected and adjusted (for example: replacing the section of the kiln barrel; replacing the large ring gear, the belt, the supporting wheel, the retaining wheel and the kiln head) , kiln seal parts, etc.). However, it must be noted that all parts and tools to be replaced should be prepared to reduce maintenance time before the planned shutdown.
The main parts of the rotary kiln need to be replaced or repaired when they are worn to the following extents:
1) The tooth thickness of the transmission gear is worn by 30% or 0.5 modulus; or the rim has to be replaced if it has irreparable damage;
2 When the kiln cylinder section has cracks or local deformation, repair or replace it;
3) The belt is found to have worn 10% of the section (the stress and stiffness should be calculated), or the surface is ground into a cone or a polygon. And
4) need to be replaced when the through crack occurs locally;
5) the thickness of the roller is 10% worn, the thickness of the rim of the retaining wheel is 20%, or the surface of the roller is ground into a cone, polygon or other profile, or the roller When there is a punch-through crack with the rim of the retaining wheel, it must be replaced or repaired. When replacing the roller, if the shaft is to be changed, the corresponding lining must be re-study;
6) The friction block of the kiln seal must be replaced when it is worn > 30mm.
6.5 Safety Precautions
Any repair work must be carried out after the kiln has been stopped. At the same time, the “No Start” sign should be hung on the motor switch.
1) During operation, it is strictly forbidden to use hand or other tools to probe into the bearing, reducer or large gear cover for any repair, inspection, cleaning, etc. Do not remove any safety guards, such as coupling covers.
2) The tools and parts used for inspection shall not be placed on the rotating parts, especially on the supporting wheels.
3) When looking at the fire, you must use the fire mirror and do not watch it directly with the naked eye. The hole should be closed when the fire is not seen.
Before the kiln is turned on, an alarm signal must be issued and strictly checked to confirm that there is no one in the kiln before the kiln transmission can be started.